Advancements and challenges in brain cancer therapeutics

The review summarizes various treatment options for brain tumors, focusing on their mechanisms, potential side effects, and recent developments. It emphasizes the need for personalized, multi-modal treatment approaches in this rapidly evolving field, balancing efficacy and patient safety. The complexity and diversity of brain tumor treatments are highlighted, advocating for ongoing research and technological advancements to improve patient outcomes.


Treating brain tumors requires a nuanced understanding of the brain, a vital and delicate organ. Location, size, tumor type, and surrounding tissue health are crucial in developing treatment plans. This review comprehensively summarizes various treatment options that are available or could be potentially available for brain tumors, including physical therapies (radiotherapy, ablation therapy, photodynamic therapy, tumor-treating field therapy, and cold atmospheric plasma therapy) and non-physical therapies (surgical resection, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy). Mechanisms of action, potential side effects, indications, and latest developments, as well as their limitations, are highlighted. Furthermore, the requirements for personalized, multi-modal treatment approaches in this rapidly evolving field are discussed, emphasizing the balance between efficacy and patient safety.

Author list:

Fan Bai†, Yueyang Deng†, Long Li, Ming Lv, Jamoliddin Razzokov, Qingnan Xu, Zhen Xu, Zhaowei Chen, Guojun Chen*, Zhitong Chen*

How to cite:

F. Bai, Y. Deng, L. Li, M. Lv, J. Razzokov, Q. Xu, Z. Xu, Z. Chen, G. Chen, Z. Chen, Exploration 2024, 20230177.