Aptamer-functionalized field-effect transistor biosensors for disease diagnosis and environmental monitoring

Aptamer-functionalized field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors with merits of fast response speed, ease of miniaturization, and integration offer an attractive solution to disease diagnosis and environmental monitoring. This review is focusing on the development of aptamer-functionalized FET biosensors from sensing mechanism to functionalization strategy to biological application level, combined with the latest research and in-depth outlook, providing support for the future development of efficient medical management and environmental monitoring.


Nano-biosensors that are composed of recognition molecules and nanomaterials have been extensively utilized in disease diagnosis, health management, and environmental monitoring. As a type of nano-biosensors, molecular specificity field-effect transistor (FET) biosensors with signal amplification capability exhibit prominent advantages including fast response speed, ease of miniaturization, and integration, promising their high sensitivity for molecules detection and identification. With intrinsic characteristics of high stability and structural tunability, aptamer has become one of the most commonly applied biological recognition units in the FET sensing fields. This review summarizes the recent progress of FET biosensors based on aptamer functionalized nanomaterials in medical diagnosis and environmental monitoring. The structure, sensing principles, preparation methods, and functionalization strategies of aptamer modified FET biosensors were comprehensively summarized. The relationship between structure and sensing performance of FET biosensors was reviewed. Furthermore, the challenges and future perspectives of FET biosensors were also discussed, so as to provide support for the future development of efficient healthcare management and environmental monitoring devices.

Author list:

Jingfeng Wang, Duo Chen, Wanting Huang, Nianjun Yang, Quan Yuan*, Yanbing Yang*

How to cite:

J. Wang, D. Chen, W. Huang, N. Yang, Q. Yuan, Y. Yang, Exploration 2023, 3, 20210027.