Harnessing the immune system to attack the tumor with cancer vaccines is being intensively studied. Nowadays, biomimetic and bioinspired nanotechnology provides new impetus for the designing concepts of cancer vaccines. The specific behaviors and endogenous molecules of each type of living entity (eukaryotic cell or microorganism) offer unique features to address specific needs for cancer vaccines.
The advent of immunotherapy has revolutionized the treating modalities of cancer. Cancer vaccine, aiming to harness the host immune system to induce a tumor-specific killing effect, holds great promises for its broad patient coverage, high safety, and combination potentials. Despite promising, the clinical translation of cancer vaccines faces obstacles including the lack of potency, limited options of tumor antigens and adjuvants, and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Biomimetic and bioinspired nanotechnology provides new impetus for the designing concepts of cancer vaccines. Through mimicking the stealth coating, pathogen recognition pattern, tissue tropism of pathogen, and other irreplaceable properties from nature, biomimetic and bioinspired cancer vaccines could gain functions such as longstanding, targeting, self-adjuvanting, and on-demand cargo release. The specific behavior and endogenous molecules of each type of living entity (cell or microorganism) offer unique features to cancer vaccines to address specific needs for immunotherapy. In this review, the strategies inspired by eukaryotic cells, bacteria, and viruses will be overviewed for advancing cancer vaccine development. Our insights into the future cancer vaccine development will be shared at the end for expediting the clinical translation.
Chenchao Feng, Peng Tan, Guangjun Nie, Motao Zhu*
How to cite:
C. Feng, P. Tan, G. Nie, M. Zhu, Exploration 2023, 3, 20210263.