Neural interfaces: Bridging the brain to the world beyond healthcare

This perspective explores diverse neural interfaces in the brain, offering transformative possibilities for engaging with our environment and enhancing communication. Emphasis is placed on the role of both non-invasive and invasive neural interfaces in transforming practical applications beyond the realm of healthcare, emphasizing the promising implications for remote control, mind connectivity, and integrated urban design.


Neural interfaces, emerging at the intersection of neurotechnology and urban planning, promise to transform how we interact with our surroundings and communicate. By recording and decoding neural signals, these interfaces facilitate direct connections between the brain and external devices, enabling seamless information exchange and shared experiences. Nevertheless, their development is challenged by complexities in materials science, electrochemistry, and algorithmic design. Electrophysiological crosstalk and the mismatch between electrode rigidity and tissue flexibility further complicate signal fidelity and biocompatibility. Recent closed-loop brain-computer interfaces, while promising for mood regulation and cognitive enhancement, are limited by decoding accuracy and the adaptability of user interfaces. This perspective outlines these challenges and discusses the progress in neural interfaces, contrasting non-invasive and invasive approaches, and explores the dynamics between stimulation and direct interfacing. Emphasis is placed on applications beyond healthcare, highlighting the need for implantable interfaces with high-resolution recording and stimulation capabilities.

Author list:

Shumao Xu†*, Yang Liu†, Hyunjin Lee, Weidong Li*

How to cite:

S. Xu, Y. Liu, H. Lee, W. Li, Exploration 2024, 20230146.