Organic fluorescent nanoprobes with NIR-IIb characteristics for deep learning

This paper reviews the recent progresses of organic fluorescent nanoprobes (OFNPs) with NIR-IIb emission, focusing on their construction strategies, optical properties, and their applications in deep learning in small animal models such as cerebrovascular imaging, tumor imaging, intestinal imaging, and systemic vascular imaging. In addition, the challenges and potential future research based on NIR-IIb fluorescent nanoprobes are highlighted.


Illumination of biological events with near-infrared II sub-channel (NIR-IIb, 1500–1700 nm) enhances the transparency of biological tissues, which is very attractive for deep imaging. Due to the long-wavelength, which reduces optical damage, suppresses autofluorescence, and obviates light scattering, NIR-IIb nanoprobes afford deep tissue penetration with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Hence, NIR-IIb imaging facilitates deep learning and decipherment of biological proceedings in living organisms with astounding high clarity. In comparison to its predecessors in the visible-near-infrared spectrum, imaging in the NIR-IIb has shown great potential for tissue imaging and extrapolating imaging applications for clinical studies. However, the use of organic fluorescent nanoprobes (OFNPs) in the NIR-IIb region is still rare since it is in its early stages. Thus, herein we aim to survey the recent development of different organic fluorescent nanomaterials with NIR-IIb characteristics, their unique photophysical properties, and their utilization in deep imaging in animal models. Further, practical researches on organic fluorescent nanoprobes with NIR-IIb emission and their transition to clinical applications are highlighted.

Author list:

Kevin Wanderi, Zongqiang Cui*

How to cite:

K. Wanderi, Z. Cui, Exploration 2022, 2, 20210097.