Recent advances in battery characterization using in situ XAFS, SAXS, XRD, and their combining techniques: From single scale to multiscale structure detection

Advanced characterization techniques contribute to revealing and clarifying the chemical reaction processes and mechanisms inside the batteries. This review comprehensively overviews the recent advances in battery characterization using in situ synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and their combining techniques.


Revealing and clarifying the chemical reaction processes and mechanisms inside the batteries will bring a great help to the controllable preparation and performance modulation of batteries. Advanced characterization techniques based on synchrotron radiation (SR) have accelerated the development of various batteries over the past decade. In situ SR techniques have been widely used in the study of electrochemical reactions and mechanisms due to their excellent characteristics. Herein, the three most wide and important synchrotron radiation techniques used in battery research were systematically reviewed, namely X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Special attention is paid to how these characterization techniques are used to understand the reaction mechanism of batteries and improve the practical characteristics of batteries. Moreover, the in situ combining techniques advance the acquisition of single scale structure information to the simultaneous characterization of multiscale structures, which will bring a new perspective to the research of batteries. Finally, the challenges and future opportunities of SR techniques for battery research are featured based on their current development.

Author list:

Weidong Cheng†, Mengyuan Zhao†, Yuecheng Lai, Xin Wang, Huanyan Liu, Peng Xiao, Guang Mo, Bin Liu*, Yunpeng Liu*

How to cite:

W. Cheng, M. Zhao, Y. Lai, X. Wang, H. Liu, P. Xiao, G. Mo, B. Liu, Y. Liu, Exploration 2023, 4,  20230056.