Scientific issues of zinc-bromine flow batteries and mitigation strategies

Zinc-bromine flow batteries are a type of rechargeable battery that uses zinc and bromine in the electrolytes to store and release electrical energy. The relatively high energy density and long lifespan make them an ideal choice for grid-scale energy storage applications.


Zinc-bromine flow batteries (ZBFBs) are promising candidates for the large-scale stationary energy storage application due to their inherent scalability and flexibility, low cost, green, and environmentally friendly characteristics. ZBFBs have been commercially available for several years in both grid scale and residential energy storage applications. Nevertheless, their continued development still presents challenges associated with electrodes, separators, electrolyte, as well as their operational chemistry. Therefore, rational design of these components in ZBFBs is of utmost importance to further improve the overall device performance. In this review, the focus is on the scientific understanding of the fundamental electrochemistry and functional components of ZBFBs, with an emphasis on the technical challenges of reaction chemistry, development of functional materials, and their application in ZBFBs. Current limitations of ZBFBs with future research directions in the development of high performance ZBFBs are suggested.

Author list:

Masud Rana, Norah Alghamdi, Xiyue Peng, Yongxin Huang, Bin Wang, Lianzhou Wang, Ian R. Gentle, Steven Hickey, Bin Luo*

How to cite:

M. Rana, N. Alghamdi, X. Peng, Y. Huang, B. Wang, L. Wang, I. R. Gentle, S. Hickey, B. Luo, Exploration 2023, 3, 20220073.