Toward maximum energy density enabled by anode-free lithium metal batteries: Recent progress and perspective

To comprehend the anode-free lithium metal batteries, it is gone into detail in this review about current collector modification, electrolyte optimization, cathode engineering, and regulation of cycling parameters.


Owing to the emergenceof energy storage and electric vehicles, the desire for safe high-energy-density energy storage devices has increased research interest in anode-free lithium metal batteries (AFLMBs). Unlike general lithium metal batteries (LMBs), in which excess Li exists to compensate for the irreversible loss of Li, only the current collector is employed as an anode and paired with a lithiated cathode in the fabrication of AFLMBs. Owing to their unique cell configuration, AFLMBs have attractive characteristics, including the highest energy density, safety, and cost-effectiveness. However, developing AFLMBs with extended cyclability remains an issue for practical applications because the high reactivity of Li with limited inventory causes severely low Coulombic efficiency (CE), poor cyclability, and dendrite growth. To address these issues, tremendous effort has been devoted to stabilizing Li metal anodes for AFLMBs. In this review, the importance and challenges of AFLMBs are highlighted. Then, diverse strategies, such as current collectors modification, advanced electrolytes, cathode engineering, and operation protocols are thoroughly reviewed. Finally, a future perspective on the strategy is provided for insight into the basis of future research. It is hoped that this review provides a comprehensive understanding by reviewing previous research and arousing more interest in this field.

Author list:

Cheol-Young Park†, Jinuk Kim†, Won-Gwang Lim†, Jinwoo Lee*

How to cite:

C.-Y. Park, J. Kim, W.-G. Lim, J. Lee, Exploration 2023, 20210255.